Alteration of Gastric and Salivary Secretions Due to Mosquito Coil in Male Wistar Rats


Odukanmi Olugbenga Adeola*, Salami Adeola Thabitha, Essiet Ekerette Udo and Olaleye Samuel Babafemi

Introduction: Many households in Nigeria use mosquito coils to prevent mosquito bites and this has public health implications. Despite the huge number of usage, there is no information on the effect of Mosquito Coil Smoke (MCS) on gastrointestinal secretions and this was investigated.

Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats (201.7 gb. wt ± 10.2 gb. wt) were used and the study was carried out in three phases. Rats were grouped (n=5) into 3 per phase of the experiments, group 1=control; groups 2 and 3 were exposed to mosquito coil fumes for 8-10 hours daily for 2 (2P) and 6 (6P) weeks respectively, in a well- ventilated room of 41.04 m3 incapacity. The salivary and gastric acid secretions, gastric mucus cell counts, and histoarchitecture of the stomach and salivary glands were assessed in phases 1 and 2 respectively. The salivary flow rate was determined following stimulation with pilocarpine 10 mg/kg (i.p), its electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry method. Salivary glands were excised, weighed and histological changes evaluated. Gastric ulcer scores, acid, and mucus secretions were determined by standard procedures.

Results: Salivary flow rate (ml/min) increased significantly in the 6P group (0.06 ± 0.00) compared to the 2P (0.05 ± 0.001) and control (0.05 ± 0.001) groups. Salivary electrolytes were altered. Gastric acid concentration (× 10-6 mEq/L) increased significantly in the 2P (5.00 ± 0.30) and in the 6P (6.48 ± 0.23) compared to control (4.10 ± 0.027). Ulcer scores increased significantly in the 6P group (17.13 ± 0.43) compared to 2P (12.00 ± 0.87) and control (12.28 ± 1.81) respectively. Gastric mucus secretion (mg/g tissue) decreased significantly in 2P (10.72 ± 1.25) and 6P (12.98 mg/g ± 0.45 mg/g) groups compared to control (16.28 ± 0.26). There was a mild alteration of the histology in MCS groups compared to control.

Conclusion: Mosquito coil smokes modulate gastrointestinal secretions in the stomach and salivary glands of rats and appears toxic to stomach mucosa.