Short-term capacities of ethanolic Theobroma cacao bean extract to ameliorate oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats


Paul Chidoka Chikezie

Objectives: The present study ascertained the capacities of ethanolic Theobroma cacao bean extract to ameliorate hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in Type I diabetic rats (T1-DR) following the short-term treatment for 64 h. In addition, erythrocyte hemolysate reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured to establish erythrocyte antioxidant status of T1-DR. Materials and Methods: Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced in the experimental rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 mol/L alloxan monohydrate in phosphate-buffered saline solution (pH = 7.4) at a dosage of 140 mg/kg body weight. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were drawn from the orbital sinus and measured for fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPGC), erythrocyte hemolysate GSH/GSSH ratio, MDA concentration, and serum lipid profile (SLP) using standard methods. Results: Blood samples of T1-DR treated with T. cacao bean extract showed a substantial reduction in FPGC but were hyperglycemic. Erythrocyte hemolysate GSH/GSSG ratio and MDA concentrations of T1-DR treated with T. cacao bean extract were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the untreated group. In general, the administration of T. cacao bean extract caused readjustments in perturbed SLP of T1-DR, which tended toward normalcy within the 64 h treatment period. Calculated AI of the experimental rats was within the range of 5.35 ± 0.51 to 0.50 ± 0.08. Conclusion: Short-term administration of T. cocoa bean extract caused substantial reduction in blood glucose concentration but did not obliterate hyperglycemia. In addition, T. cocoa bean extract, in the present form and doses exhibited comparatively limited capacities to reduce oxidative stress and ameliorate dyslipidemia in T1-DR.