In vivo antidiabetic activity of Capparis erythrocarpos (Capparaceae) root extract

Abstract

Goodluck G. Nyondo, Alphonce Ignace Marealle, Ramadhani S. O. Nondo, Manase Kilonzi, Wigilya P. Mikomangwa,Hamu J. Mlyuka, Ritah F. Mutagonda, George M. Bwire, Edward G. Mchau, Boniphace Charles Mwita, Omary M. S Minzi

Background: Capparis erythrocarpos Isert has been reported to have antidyslipidemic effect on normoglycemic animals. However, there are no reports on its effect on the control of blood sugar levels in diabetic animals. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antidiabetic activity of C. erythrocarpos in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Plants materials were collected in April 2018, and the study was conducted from April to July 2019. Antidiabetic activity of the hydroethanolic extract of C. erythrocarpos was determined at different doses of 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg bwt and compared to positive and negative controls. Acute antihyperglycemic activity in normal mice was investigated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) method. Safety of the extract was evaluated by the use of “up and down” oral acute toxicity testing method. Statistical differences between the groups were assessed by Student’s t-test and one-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s multiple comparisons. Results: C. erythrocarpos produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose level compared to the negative control in STZ-induced diabetic mice after 14 days of daily oral doses of the extract at 250 mg/kg bwt (p = 0.0267), 500 mg/kg bwt (p = 0.0002), and 1,000 mg/kg bwt (p = 0.0011). OGTT showed that the extract significantly lowered the blood glucose levels at 2 hours after oral glucose load at all doses provided 100 mg/kg bwt (p = 0.0322), 200 mg/kg bwt (p = 0.0118), and 500 mg/kg bwt (p = 0.0222). There were no statistically significant difference in clinical signs and symptoms of acute oral toxicity observed between control and treatment groups. Conclusion: Oral administration of the hydroethanolic root extract of C. erythrocarpos is nonacutely toxic and exhibited a significant hypoglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

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