Comparative study of iron status between toxemia of pregnancy and normal pregnancy


Bandaru Aruna Kumari

Objective: Comparison of iron parameters in toxemia of pregnancy with controls and their role in etiology, pathogenesis, fetal outcome, and maternal complications. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on hundred pregnant women between 20 and 35 years age group during the third trimester. 60 were identified as toxemia of pregnancy and forty matched healthy pregnant women were taken as controls in the study. Iron parameters were analyzed and evaluated the role of iron in high-risk pregnancies. Results: Of the 60 toxemia of pregnancy patients enrolled in the study, 35 (58.3%) were classified as preeclampsia and 25 (41.7%) were classified as eclampsia. There was significantly increased serum iron, ferritin, % saturation of transferrin in toxemia of pregnancy than in controls, but unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) was significantly decreased in toxemia of pregnancy than in controls. Total iron binding capacity and transferrin did not differ much significantly in both the groups. 20% of preeclampsia and all (100%) eclampsia has a higher % saturation of transferrin levels (>60-100%). Conclusion: Iron status of all pregnant women should be assessed before giving the iron supplements as they cause more harm than benefit. The estimation of iron parameters particularly ferritin, % saturation of transferrin, and UIBC are useful markers to predict prognosis, severity of liver damage, and emergence of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets syndrome in toxemia of pregnancy especially in eclampsia, as iron species implicated in the etiology of toxemia of pregnancy likely to increase oxidative stress and promote the endothelial cell damage.