Antitumor potential of some selective medicinal plants on experimental tumor ascites

Abstract

Mohamed Labib Salem, Abeer Abdel-Hamid Khamis, Abdel-Halim Abdel-Hady Mostafa, Ehab Mostafa Ali

Background: Conventional anticancer chemotherapy is limited due to the associated with toxicity. Exploring new agents which can lower toxicity and enhance the efficacy of anticancer drug is of a paramount significance. Aim: Evaluate the antitumor activities of extracts of medicinal plants including green tea, chamomile, black cumin seeds, and wheat bran, as well as their capability to lower the toxicity induced by the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin (CIS). Materials and Methods: The antitumor effects of these extracts were evaluated in in vitro and in vivo assays using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. In vitro studies, the cell viability and the expression of apoptosis-related genes Bad, Bax, Bcl-2, and Bcl-xL were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction technique. EAC cells were injected into mice followed by treatment with injection of CIS and oral administration of each extract or in combination. Results: The content of polyphenolic compounds in green tea, chamomile, black cumin, and wheat bran were 1200, 315, 35, and 20 mg/100 g of dry weight, respectively. Their 50% of inhibitory concentration values were 13.5, 30, 350, and 1060 mg/mL, respectively. The polyphenolic compounds suppressed EAC viability in vitro associated with up-regulation of Bad and Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Treatment of EAC tumor-bearing mice with these extracts associated with increases in the mean survival time of mice as well as increases and decreases in the numbers of dead and live EAC cells, respectively. The antitumor effect of a combinatorial treatment of the extracts together or with CIS was higher than those of single treatment. The hepatic and renal glutathione peroxidase and antioxidant capacity were significantly increased after treatment with the extracts. Conclusion: The extracts of these medicinal plants have potential antitumor effects when used in combination and can ameliorate the toxic effect of chemotherapy through antioxidant effects while enhance its antitumor effect through apoptotic effects.

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